On-Line Solutions To Injection Molding Problems
Inadequate Residence Time
Explanation: Residence time is the amount of time that the plastic material spends being exposed to heating conditions in the injection barrel. The required time depends upon how much heat the material must absorb to be processed properly. Inadequate residence time results in underheated material. This will cause the material to be stiff when injected and it will not flow enough to fill the cavity before solidifying. The flow patterns will be imprinted on the surface of the molded part because they were not forced out in time.
Solution: Optimize the residence time by making sure the mold is sized to the proper machine. Also, optimize the cycle time to ensure the material residence time is adequate to properly melt the plastic.
Inadequate Cycle Time
Explanation: If the overall cycle time is too short there is a good possibility that the material in the barrel cannot absorb enough heat before it is injected into the mold. This will cause premature solidification and flow lines may appear because the plastic was not packed enough (before solidifying) to squeeze them out.
Solution: Increase the cycle time. The easiest change to make is to add time to the cooling portion of the cycle. That is when the plastic is absorbing the most heat in the barrel. Increase barrel temperatures 10 degrees F at a time, allowing 10 cycles between changes to re-stabilize the process.
Low Mold Temperature
Explanation: Generally, a hot mold will allow a material to stay molten longer than a cold mold and cause the molecules to pack together properly before they solidify. This results in a dense part with no flow lines. If the mold is too cold, the molecules solidify before they are packed out and flow lines may result.
Solution: Increase the mold temperature to the point that the material has proper flow and packs out the mold. Start with the material suppliers recommendations and adjust accordingly. Allow 10 cycles for every 10-degree change for the process to re-stabilize.
Explanation: If there is not enough venting in the mold, the material will push into unvented areas and not compress against the mold steel because trapped gases are in the way. The material will actually ``stutter'' as it tries to force the gas out of the way, and will eventually solidify before packing can be achieved. The stutter marks will imprint on the part surface as flow lines.
Solution: Vent the mold by grinding thin (0.0005''-0.002'') pathways on the shutoff area of the cavity blocks. The viscosity of the plastic being molded determines the depth of the vent. Stiff materials can utilize deeper vents but fluid materials require thinner vents. In either case, the concept is to remove air from the mold as fast as possible with as deep a gate as the material viscosity will allow. At least 30% of the parting line perimeter should be vented, but additional vents can be selectively placed for any area where flow lines appear.
Improper Flow Rate
Explanation: Resin manufacturers supply specific formulations in a range of standard flow rates. Thin-walled products may require an easy flow material while thick-walled products can use a material that has a stiffer consistency. It is better to use the stiffest flow possible because it improves physical properties of the molded part. However, the stiff material will require higher injection pressures, which may blow the mold open and cause flash at the parting line. If an easy flow material is used, the physical properties will not be as great but, in addition, the material will flow into very thin areas and could create flash where the stiffer materials would not.
Solution: Utilize a material that has the stiffest flow possible without causing non-fill. Contact the material supplier for help in deciding which flow rate should be used for a specific application.
Inconsistent Process Cycle
Explanation: It is possible that the machine operator is the cause of delayed or inconsistent cycles. This will result in erratic heating of the material in the injection barrel. If such a condition exists, the colder particles will require higher injection pressures and may not fill the mold before they fully solidify. Flow lines will not be forced out in time.
Solution: If possible, operate the machine on automatic cycle, using the operator only to interrupt the cycle if an emergency occurs. Use a robot if an ``operator'' is really necessary. And, instruct all employees on the importance of maintaining consistent cycles.
Flow lines can be defined as linear grooving, or circular ripples, on the surface of a molded part that indicate the direction of material flow within the cavity of the mold.
Some common causes and solutions are listed below.
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