On-Line Solutions To Injection Molding Problems
Excessive Injection Speed Or Pressure
Explanation: Injection speed and pressure determine how fast molten resin is injected into a mold. If either is too high, the resin is forced in so fast that trapped air and gases are not allowed time to be vented. Many of these gases are pushed to the edge of the flow front and become compressed to the point that they auto-ignite, burning the surrounding plastic. The burned areas appear as char marks on the molded part.
Solution: Reducing the injection speed or pressure will allow enough time for the gases or trapped air to escape through normal vent paths.
Excessive Back Pressure
Explanation: While most materials will benefit from some back pressure application, there is a limit to the amount needed for a specific material and product. The whole idea of applying back pressure is to mix the material better, making it denser and more oriented for flow. However, this very act of mixing may introduce air into the melt, which may be too much for the venting system to handle under normal conditions. The excess air may be compressed at the vent locations and auto-ignite, causing burn marks on the part. There is also the possibility that shearing action from too high a back pressure setting will degrade the material in the barrel and cause burning to occur.
Solution: Use minimum back pressure. All materials will benefit from approximately 50-psi back pressure, but some require up to 300 psi. The material supplier is the best source of information regarding proper back pressure settings for a specific material. When adjusting back pressure use increments of 10 psi.
Improper Sprue Bushing-To-Nozzle Sizing
Explanation: If the sprue bushing diameter does not match the nozzle opening (or vice-versa) molecular shearing will occur at their junction and some of the material flowing through that area will degrade. The degraded material will enter the melt stream and be molded into the finished part.
Solution: Using bluing dye or thick paper, press the nozzle against the sprue bushing, and check the impression of the openings of each. They should be close to the same and not be off center. Replace the nozzle tip or the sprue bushing if they do not match. Re-center the heating cylinder to the mold if they are off center.
Explanation: Air is trapped in a closed mold and incoming molten plastic will compress this air until it auto-ignites. This burns the surrounding plastic and results in charred material in the form of burn marks.
Solution: Vent the mold by grinding thin (0.0005''-0.002'') pathways on the shutoff area of the cavity blocks. Vents should take up approximately 30% of the perimeter of the molded part. Vent the runner, too. Any air that is trapped in the runner will be pushed into the part. Blind pockets can be vented using flush core pins or fake ejector pins and grinding a flat down the entire length of the pins.
Excessive Use Of Regrind
Explanation: Regrind melts at a lower temperature than virgin, and a regrind/virgin blend must be heated high enough to melt the virgin, which may degrade the regrind. For this reason, regrind use should be minimized if mixed with virgin material. However, regrind by itself can be used successfully by lowering the melt temperature.
Solution: Use 100% regrind, or, if mixing with virgin, limit the amount of regrind to 15% by weight. It may be necessary to use no regrind at all, especially in some medical and electronic products.
Inconsistent Process Cycle
Explanation: It is possible that the machine operator is the cause of delayed or inconsistent cycles. This will result in excessive residence time and erratic heating of the material in the injection barrel. If such a condition exists, materials may degrade, resulting in locally burned resin.
Solution: If possible, run the machine on automatic cycle, using the operator only to interrupt the cycle if an emergency occurs. Use a robot if an ``operator'' is really necessary. And, instruct all employees on the importance of maintaining consistent cycles.
Burn marks can be defined as small dark brown or black discolorations on the surface of a molded part, usually found at the end of the material flow path or in blind pockets.
Some common causes and solutions are listed below.
NOTE: For more detailed information on the causes and solutions of this defect, you can find it in our BOOK, or ONLINE SEMINAR.
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